Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanes

Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanesis a powerhouse derived from broccoli sprout concentrate, providing a four fold increase in the phase II enzyme potential. The broccoli sprout concentrate is organic, vegan, kosher, Non GMO, gluten and yeast free





Product SKU: BI-GLUCOSULFRA Product Categories: , Brand:


Broccoli sprouts are the richest source of glucoraphanin which is the direct precursor to sulforaphane.  Broccoli sulforaphane is one of the most potent inducers of phase II enzymes.  Our Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanes is a powerhouse, providing a four fold increase in the phase 2 enzyme potential.

Learn more about the research and benefits of this power packed product. A daily must.

Features / Benefits:

  • Vegan
  • Kosher
  • Non GMO
  • Gluten Free
  • Yeast Free
  • 4-6-fold Increase of Glucosinolates
  • High Sulforaphane Potential
  • 100% Concentration of Organic Broccoli Sprouts

The new Cruciferous Sprouts has 100% concentration of organic broccoli sprouts and is named, Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanes, since it offers a 4-6-fold increase of glucosinolates for a high sulforaphane potential.

Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanes is a potent mix of Glucosinolates with 15,000 ppm, Glucoraphanin with 10,000 ppm, and Sulforaphanes Potential of 4,000 ppm. Broccoli sprouts grow into their peak when they are three days old, and can contain from 10-100 times more glucoraphanin, the glucosinolates of sulforaphane, than a mature broccoli plant. Each of our vegan capsule has 500 mg of organic broccoli sprouts, harvested at the peak of their phytonutrient power.

According to Leone et al. (2017), the vegetable broccoli accumulates a significant amount of the phyto-nutrient glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolates) which is metabolized in our bodies into the biologically active Sulforaphane (SFN). The conversion requires the enzyme, myrosinase, which is also found in the broccoli plant as well as the bacterial myrosinases in the human colon. Once broccoli or broccoli sprouts are consumed and converted into SFN, this amazing phyto-nutrient is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway to form cysteinylglycine-, cysteine-, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugates. These metabolites are then excreted via the urine (Mennicke et al., 1988; Atwell et al., 2015). In fact, it has been shown in research that 70% of the ingested SFN was retrieved in urine (Egner et al., 2011), showing systemic benefits (Abbaoui et al., 2012).

Sulforaphanes (SFN) are found in high quantities in broccoli, and in higher quantities in broccoli sprouts. SFN is an isothiocyanate that occurs in a stored form as glucoraphanin in cruciferous vegetables (Vanduchova et al., 2018). Isothiocyanates are phyto-chemicals produced by cruciferous vegetables and sprouts.  They are derivatives of glucosinolates in the cells of cruciferous plants. The hydrolysis (chemical breakdown during digestion) of glucosinolates by the enzyme myrosinase creates this pungent compound as a defensive tool to protect against pathogens that want to eat the plant. This same defense mechanism is known to offer excellent health benefits, including a fungicidal affect (Parker, 2015; Troncoso-Rojas et al., 2014; for more on the mechanism of SFN, see Leon et al., 2017).

SFN in Broccoli sprouts provide the most potent natural phase II enzyme inducer to boost the liver’s ability to detoxify. As a fun fact, broccoli sprouts are the most potent producers of Sulforaphanes, with broccoli plant as second, and then kohlrabi and cauliflower. But as we pointed out above, to activate the ability of broccoli, or SFN, the enzymes have to react: Two phytochemicals must react, or interact, to create SFN: Myrosinase (enzyme in the broccoli) and glucoraphanin (West et al., 2004). For this reason, we have chosen the most potent organic broccoli sprouts with high yield of Glucoraphanin of 10,000 ppm (a direct precursor to SFN).

Standardizing the enzymes to produce a high potential SFN is important. Our organic broccoli sprouts are guaranteed for high sulforaphane potential of 4,000 ppm to ensure consistent daily intake of SFN. The history and ongoing research on the health benefits of cruciferous vegetables and in particular, broccoli and broccoli sprouts are impressive. Take a look at our Research tab and read some of the articles on SFN in broccoli sprouts.

In 1992, Zhang et al. have isolated sulforaphane and shown that it is potent and effective anti-carcinogenic agent (Zhang et al., 1992; Leon et al., 2017). Since then, Sulforaphanes (SFN) derived from cruciferous broccoli sprouts have shown numerous bioactivities (Su et al., 2018) that offer different kinds anti-carcinogenic properties (Mokhtari et al., 2018; Suresh et al., 2018; Su et al., 2018), phase II detoxifying enzymes (Thangapandiyan et al., 2018; James et al., 2012), including phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airways (Riedl et al., 2009; Heber et al., 2014).

Moreover, SFN has also been researched as an effective agent for cardiovascular health (Gray, 2018; Angeloni et al., 2009), anti-inflammation (López-Chillón et al., 2018), detoxification of airborne pollutants (Egner et al., 2014), H-pylori antimicrobial with a general benefit for gut health (Yanaka, 2017, and 2018) and brain health (Sedlak et al., 2017), including support for autism (Singh et al, 2014).

To understand how SFN works in our body, turn to researchers such as Xin Jiang et al. (2018), for a thorough review. In Chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, Jiang et al. explain the many bioactive dietary compounds in vegetables and fruits that have been demonstrated to be effective in cancer prevention and even intervention. Cruciferous vegetables, and in particular, sulforaphanes have been shown to have chemopreventive activity – in vitro and in vivo. Several mechanisms are outlined such as: regulation of Phase I and Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis, especially via regulation of signaling pathways as NrFe-Keap 1 and NF-k. Jiang et al. (2018) includes the research on SFN’s effect on epigenetic control of key genes involved in initiation and progression of cancer, showing a promise for using SFN as cancer chemopreventive strategy. In fact, there are many different kinds of phyto-nutrients that are found to be effective agents in the prevention of cancer, including favorable mediation of epigenetic changes (Pandey et al., 2017; Jiang et al., 2018).

Sulforaphanes are also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, significantly reducing DNA-binding activity of NF-kB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes (Jiang et al., 2018; Kamakar et al., 2006).

SFN in broccoli sprouts is found to be safe (Shapiro et al., 2006) and well tolerated, even when it is used for advanced pancreatic cancer treatments (Lozanovski et al, 2014). Since SFN operates through several different mechanisms in the body, including regulations of Phase I and II, anti-inflammatory process, and more, it is well worth the inclusion of this dietary food into a daily routine.

Suggested Dose

GLUCOSINOLATES & SULFORAPHANES (Broccoli Cruciferous Sprouts) — Glucosinolates & Sulforaphanes is designed to support the integrity of cellular DNA and enact Phase II liver detox.*

Phase II liver detox: High levels of glucosinolates (15,000ppm) and sulforaphanes (4,000ppm potential) from broccoli spouts support every cell’s elimination and protection mechanism.*

Support during cancer treatment: Take 2 capsules twice a day. Add Blueberry ExtractHigh ORAC, and the Original or Supernatant. Consult your health care provider.*

Support during toxic overload: Take 2 capsules twice a day. This will help to protect the body and to help support the body’s detox mechanism. Add  4 tabs of Chlorella and 2 capsules of Phyto Power.*


One Capsule Contains: 700mg
Broccoli Sprout Powder (Brassica oleracea italica)
QAI Certified Organic
Glucosinolates 15,000ppm
Glucoraphanins 10,000ppm
Sulforaphane Potention 4,000ppm

Other ingredients:
cellulose & water (capsule shell)


Suggested Research


Glucoraphanin & Sulforaphanes: Organic Broccoli Sprouts

Gu, Y., Guo, Q., Zhang, L., Chen, Z., Han, Y., & Gu, Z. (2011). Physiological and biochemical metabolism of germinating broccoli seeds and sprouts. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(1), 209-213. DOI: 10.1021/jf203599v

Egner, P. A., Chen, J. G., Wang, J. B., Wu, Y., Sun, Y., Lu, J. H., … & Jacobson, L. P. (2011). Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China. Cancer prevention research, 4(3), 384-395. Abstract

Hooper, L. V. (2011). You AhR what you eat: linking diet and immunity. Cell, 147(3), 489-491. Article

Housley, L., Magana, A. A., Hsu, A., Beaver, L. M., Wong, C. P., Stevens, J. F., … & Maier, C. S. (2018). Untargeted Metabolomic Screen Reveals Changes in Human Plasma Metabolite Profiles Following Consumption of Fresh Broccoli Sprouts. Molecular nutrition & food research, 1700665. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700665

Shapiro, T. A., Fahey, J. W., Dinkova-Kostova, A. T., Holtzclaw, W. D., Stephenson, K. K., Wade, K. L., … & Talalay, P. (2006). Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: a clinical phase I study. Nutrition and cancer, 55(1), 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5501_7

Sivapalan, T., Melchini, A., Saha, S., Needs, P. W., Traka, M. H., Tapp, H., … & Mithen, R. F. (2018). Bioavailability of Glucoraphanin and Sulforaphane from High‐Glucoraphanin Broccoli. Molecular nutrition & food research, 1700911. Article

Vanduchova, A., Anzenbacher, P., & Anzenbacherova, E. (2018). Isothiocyanate from Broccoli, Sulforaphane, and Its Properties. Journal of medicinal food. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.0024

Vermeulen, M., Klöpping-Ketelaars, I. W., van den Berg, R., & Vaes, W. H. (2008). Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(22), 10505-10509. DOI:10.1021/jf801989e

West, L. G., Meyer, K. A., Balch, B. A., Rossi, F. J., Schultz, M. R., & Haas, G. W. (2004). Glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin contents in seeds of 59 cultivars of broccoli, raab, kohlrabi, radish, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 52(4), 916-926. DOI:10.1021/jf0307189

Liver Support, Phase I & II Detox, and Anti-carcinogenic Effect

Abbaoui, B., Riedl, K. M., Ralston, R. A., Thomas‐Ahner, J. M., Schwartz, S. J., Clinton, S. K., & Mortazavi, A. (2012). Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: characterization, metabolism, and interconversion. Molecular nutrition & food research, 56(11), 1675-1687. Abstract

Abdull Razis, A. F., Konsue, N., & Ioannides, C. (2018). Isothiocyanates and Xenobiotic Detoxification. Molecular nutrition & food research, 62(18), 1700916. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700916

Abdull Razis AF, Noor NM. (2013). Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev;14(3):1565-70. Article

Abdull Razis, A. F., Bagatta, M., De Nicola, G. R., Iori, R., Plant, N., & Ioannides, C. (2012). Characterization of the temporal induction of hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: requirement for at least a 6 h exposure to elicit complete induction profile. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(22), 5556-5564. Abstract

Amjad, A. I., Parikh, R. A., Appleman, L. J., Hahm, E. R., Singh, K., & Singh, S. V. (2015). Broccoli-derived sulforaphane and chemoprevention of prostate cancer: from bench to bedside. Current pharmacology reports, 1(6), 382-390. Abstract

Armah, C. N., Traka, M. H., Dainty, J. R., Defernez, M., Janssens, A., Leung, W., … & Mithen, R. F. (2013). A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulating mitochondrial function–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(3), 712-722. Article

Boivin, D., Lamy, S., Lord-Dufour, S., Jackson, J., Beaulieu, E., Côté, M., … & Béliveau, R. (2009). Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of common vegetables: A comparative study. Food Chemistry, 112(2), 374-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.084

Brooks, J. D., Paton, V. G., & Vidanes, G. (2001). Potent induction of phase 2 enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 10(9), 949-954. Abstract

Cheng, Y. M., Tsai, C. C., & Hsu, Y. C. (2016). Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate, induces G2/M arrest in cervical cancer cells through cyclinB1 downregulation and GADD45β/CDC2 association. International journal of molecular sciences, 17(9), 1530. Article

Choi, Y. H. (2018). ROS-mediated activation of AMPK plays a critical role in sulforaphane-induced apoptosis and mitotic arrest in AGS human gastric cancer cells. General physiology and biophysics, 37(2), 129-140. Abstract

Clarke, J. D., Dashwood, R. H., & Ho, E. (2008). Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer letters, 269(2), 291-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.018

Dacosta, C., & Bao, Y. (2017). The role of microRNAs in the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables. Nutrients, 9(8), 902. Article

Fahey, J. W., Zhang, Y., & Talalay, P. (1997). Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(19), 10367-10372. Article

Fimognari, C., & Hrelia, P. (2007). Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 635(2-3), 90-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2006.10.004

Heiss, E., Herhaus, C., Klimo, K., Bartsch, H., & Gerhauser, C. (2001). Nuclear factor-κB is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Article

James, D., Devaraj, S., Bellur, P., Lakkanna, S., Vicini, J., & Boddupalli, S. (2012). Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli. Nutrition reviews, 70(11), 654-665. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00532.x

Jiang, X., Liu, Y., Ma, L., Ji, R., Qu, Y., Xin, Y., & Lv, G. (2018). Chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane. Drug design, development and therapy, 12, 2905. Article

Juengel, E., Euler, S., Maxeiner, S., Rutz, J., Justin, S., Roos, F., … & Blaheta, R. A. (2017). Sulforaphane as an adjunctive to everolimus counteracts everolimus resistance in renal cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine, 27, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2017.01.016

Juengel, E., Maxeiner, S., Rutz, J., Justin, S., Roos, F., Khoder, W., … & Blaheta, R. A. (2016). Sulforaphane inhibits proliferation and invasive activity of everolimus-resistant kidney cancer cells in vitro. Oncotarget, 7(51), 85208. Article

Juge, N., Mithen, R. F., & Traka, M. (2007). Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 64(9), 1105. Abstract

Kensler, T. W., Egner, P. A., Agyeman, A. S., Visvanathan, K., Groopman, J. D., Chen, J. G., … & Talalay, P. (2012). Keap1–nrf2 signaling: a target for cancer prevention by sulforaphane. In Natural Products in Cancer Prevention and Therapy (pp. 163-177). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Abstract

Kikuchi, M., Ushida, Y., Shiozawa, H., Umeda, R., Tsuruya, K., Aoki, Y., … & Nishizaki, Y. (2015). Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects. World journal of gastroenterology, 21(43), 12457. Article

Kwak, M. K., & Kensler, T. W. (2010). Targeting NRF2 signaling for cancer chemoprevention. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 244(1), 66-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.08.028

Lenzi, M., Fimognari, C., & Hrelia, P. (2014). Sulforaphane as a promising molecule for fighting cancer. In Advances in Nutrition and Cancer (pp. 207-223). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Abstract

Leone, A., Diorio, G., Sexton, W., Schell, M., Alexandrow, M., Fahey, J. W., & Kumar, N. B. (2017). Sulforaphane for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer: molecular mechanism targeted approach. Oncotarget, 8(21), 35412. Article

Li, S. H., Fu, J., Watkins, D. N., Srivastava, R. K., & Shankar, S. (2013). Sulforaphane regulates self-renewal of pancreatic cancer stem cells through the modulation of Sonic hedgehog–GLI pathway. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 373(1-2), 217-227. Abstract

Li, Y., & Zhang, T. (2013). Targeting cancer stem cells with sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts. Future oncology, 9(8), 1097-1103. Abstract

Li, Y., Zhang, T., Korkaya, H., Liu, S., Lee, H. F., Newman, B., … & Sun, D. (2010). Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Clinical Cancer Research, 1078-0432. Article

Liu, B., Mao, Q., Lin, Y., Zhou, F., & Xie, L. (2013). The association of cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. World journal of urology, 31(1), 127-133. Abstract

Liu, B., Mao, Q., Wang, X., Zhou, F., Luo, J., Wang, C., … & Xie, L. (2013). Cruciferous vegetables consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Nutrition and cancer, 65(5), 668-676. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.795980

Liu, P., Wang, W., Zhou, Z., Smith, A. J., Bowater, R. P., Wormstone, I. M., … & Bao, Y. (2018). Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells. Nutrients, 10(5). Article

Lozanovski, V. J., Houben, P., Hinz, U., Hackert, T., Herr, I., & Schemmer, P. (2014). Pilot study evaluating broccoli sprouts in advanced pancreatic cancer (POUDER trial)-study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 15(1), 204. https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-204

Mokhtari, R. B., Baluch, N., Homayouni, T. S., Morgatskaya, E., Kumar, S., Kazemi, P., & Yeger, H. (2018). The role of Sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention and health benefits: a mini-review. Journal of cell communication and signaling, 12(1), 91-101. Abstract

Munday, R., & Munday, C. M. (2004). Induction of phase II detoxification enzymes in rats by plant-derived isothiocyanates: comparison of allyl isothiocyanate with sulforaphane and related compounds. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52(7), 1867-1871. Abstract

Myzak, M. C., & Dashwood, R. H. (2006). Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1. Cancer letters, 233(2), 208-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.02.033

Pawlik, A., Wiczk, A., Kaczyńska, A., Antosiewicz, J., & Herman-Antosiewicz, A. (2013). Sulforaphane inhibits growth of phenotypically different breast cancer cells. European journal of nutrition, 52(8), 1949-1958. DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0499-5

Perocco, P., Bronzetti, G., Canistro, D., Valgimigli, L., Sapone, A., Affatato, A., … & Barillari, J. (2006). Glucoraphanin, the bioprecursor of the widely extolled chemopreventive agent sulforaphane found in broccoli, induces phase-I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and increases free radical generation in rat liver. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 595(1), 125-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.11.007

Ramirez, C. N., Li, W., Zhang, C., Wu, R., Su, S., Wang, C., … & Kong, A. N. T. (2018). In vitro-in vivo dose response of ursolic acid, sulforaphane, PEITC, and curcumin in cancer prevention. The AAPS journal, 20(1), 19. Abstract

Romagnolo, D. F., Davis, C. D., & Milner, J. A. (2012). Phytoalexins in cancer prevention. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 17, 2035-2058. Abstract

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Sanlier, N., & Guler Saban, M. (2018). The Benefits of Brassica Vegetables on Human Health. J Human Health Res, 1, 104. Article

Shapiro, T. A., Fahey, J. W., Wade, K. L., Stephenson, K. K., & Talalay, P. (2001). Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 10(5), 501-508. Abstract

Sharma, D., & Sangha, G. K. (2018). Antioxidative effects of aqueous extract of broccoli sprouts against Triazophos induced hepatic and renal toxicity in female Wistar rats. Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 16(2), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jab.2017.11.001

Schnekenburger, M., & Diederich, M. (2015). Nutritional epigenetic regulators in the field of cancer: new avenues for chemopreventive approaches. In Epigenetic Cancer Therapy (pp. 393-425). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800206-3.00018-5

Steinkellner, H., Rabot, S., Freywald, C., Nobis, E., Scharf, G., Chabicovsky, M., … & Kassie, F. (2001). Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 480, 285-297. Abstract

Su, X., Jiang, X., Meng, L., Dong, X., Shen, Y., & Xin, Y. (2018). Anticancer Activity of Sulforaphane: The Epigenetic Mechanisms and the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018. Abstract

Suresh, S., Waly, M. I., & Rahman, M. S. (2018). Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) as a Preventive Biomaterial for Cancer. In Bioactive Components, Diet and Medical Treatment in Cancer Prevention (pp. 75-87). Springer, Cham. Abstract

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Thangapandiyan, S., Ramesh, M., Miltonprabu, S., Hema, T., Nandhini, V., & Bavithrajothi, G. (2018). Protective Role of Sulforaphane against Multiorgan Toxicity in Rats: An In-vivo and In-vitro Review Study. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology, 8(1), 1-8. Article

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Ushida, Y., Suganuma, H., & Yanaka, A. (2015). Low-dose of the sulforaphane precursor glucoraphanin as a dietary supplement induces chemoprotective enzymes in humans. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6(17), 1603. Article

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Wang, D. X., Zou, Y. J., Zhuang, X. B., Chen, S. X., Lin, Y., Li, W. L., … & Lin, Z. Q. (2017). Sulforaphane suppresses EMT and metastasis in human lung cancer through miR-616-5p-mediated GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathways. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 38(2), 241. Article

Wiczk, A., Hofman, D., Konopa, G., & Herman-Antosiewicz, A. (2012). Sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate, inhibits protein synthesis in human prostate cancer cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 1823(8), 1295-1305. Article

Wiczk, A., Hofman, D., Konopa, G., & Herman-Antosiewicz, A. (2012). Sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate, inhibits protein synthesis in human prostate cancer cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 1823(8), 1295-1305. Article

Wu, Q. J., Yang, Y., Vogtmann, E., Wang, J., Han, L. H., Li, H. L., & Xiang, Y. B. (2012). Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Annals of oncology, 24(4), 1079-1087. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mds601

Yanaka, A. (2018). Role of NRF2 in protection of the gastrointestinal tract against oxidative stress. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 17-139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.17-139

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Cardiovascular & Diabetes Support

Angeloni, C., Leoncini, E., Malaguti, M., Angelini, S., Hrelia, P., & Hrelia, S. (2009). Modulation of phase II enzymes by sulforaphane: implications for its cardioprotective potential. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57(12), 5615-5622. Article

Bahadoran, Z., Mirmiran, P., Hosseinpanah, F., Hedayati, M., Hosseinpour-Niazi, S., & Azizi, F. (2011). Broccoli sprouts reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. European journal of clinical nutrition, 65(8), 972. Article

Bahadoran, Z., Tohidi, M., Nazeri, P., Mehran, M., Azizi, F., & Mirmiran, P. (2012). Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 63(7), 767-771. Abstract

Bahadoran, Z., Tohidi, M., Nazeri, P., Mehran, M., Azizi, F., & Mirmiran, P. (2012). Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 63(7), 767-771. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2012.665043

Gray, S. G. (2018). The Potential of Epigenetic Compounds in Treating Diabetes. In Epigenetics in Human Disease (Second Edition) (pp. 489-547). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812215-0.00017-0

López-Chillón, M. T., Carazo-Díaz, C., Prieto-Merino, D., Zafrilla, P., Moreno, D. A., & Villaño, D. (2018). Effects of long-term consumption of broccoli sprouts on inflammatory markers in overweight subjects. Clinical Nutrition. Abstract

Mirmiran, P., Bahadoran, Z., Hosseinpanah, F., Keyzad, A., & Azizi, F. (2012). Effects of broccoli sprout with high sulforaphane concentration on inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Functional Foods, 4(4), 837-841. Article

Zhang, X., Shu, X. O., Xiang, Y. B., Yang, G., Li, H., Gao, J., … & Zheng, W. (2011). Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 94(1), 240-246. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.110.009340

Lung Health and Anti-Inflammatory

Egner, P. A., Chen, J. G., Zarth, A. T., Ng, D., Wang, J., Kensler, K. H., … & Fahey, J. W. (2014). Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China. Cancer prevention research, canprevres-0103. Abstract

Heber, D., Li, Z., Garcia-Lloret, M., Wong, A. M., Lee, T. Y. A., Thames, G., … & Nel, A. (2014). Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles. Food & function, 5(1), 35-41. Article

Jiang, Y., Wu, S. H., Shu, X. O., Xiang, Y. B., Ji, B. T., Milne, G. L., … & Yang, G. (2014). Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely correlated with circulating levels of proinflammatory markers in women. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(5), 700-708. DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2013.12.019

Noah, T. L., Zhang, H., Zhou, H., Glista-Baker, E., Müller, L., Bauer, R. N., … & Robinette, C. (2014). Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study. PloS one, 9(6), e98671. Article

Park, J. H., Kim, J. W., Lee, C. M., Kim, Y. D., Chung, S. W., Jung, I. D., … & Seo, J. K. (2012). Sulforaphane inhibits the Th2 immune response in ovalbumin-induced asthma. BMB reports, 45(5), 311-316. Abstract

Riedl, M. A., Saxon, A., & Diaz-Sanchez, D. (2009). Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clinical immunology, 130(3), 244-251. Abstract

Riso, P., Vendrame, S., Del Bo’, C., Martini, D., Martinetti, A., Seregni, E., … & Porrini, M. (2014). Effect of 10-day broccoli consumption on inflammatory status of young healthy smokers. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 65(1), 106-111. DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2013.830084

Riso, P., Vendrame, S., Del Bo’, C., Martini, D., Martinetti, A., Seregni, E., … & Porrini, M. (2014). Effect of 10-day broccoli consumption on inflammatory status of young healthy smokers. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 65(1), 106-111. DOI:10.3109/09637486.2013.830084

Ritz, S. A., Wan, J., & Diaz-Sanchez, D. (2007). Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 292(1), L33-L39. Article

Wang, A. S., Xu, Y., Zhang, Z. W., Lu, B. B., Yin, X., Yao, A. J., … & Zhang, X. H. (2017). Sulforaphane protects MLE-12 lung epithelial cells against oxidative damage caused by ambient air particulate matter. Food & function, 8(12), 4555-4562. Abstract

Wu, X., Zhu, Y., Yan, H., Liu, B., Li, Y., Zhou, Q., & Xu, K. (2010). Isothiocyanates induce oxidative stress and suppress the metastasis potential of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Bmc Cancer, 10(1), 269. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-269

Bowel Health & Antimicrobial Effect (H-pylori)

Fahey, J. W., Haristoy, X., Dolan, P. M., Kensler, T. W., Scholtus, I., Stephenson, K. K., … & Lozniewski, A. (2002). Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo [a] pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(11), 7610-7615. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.112203099

Moon, J. K., Kim, J. R., Ahn, Y. J., & Shibamoto, T. (2010). Analysis and anti-Helicobacter activity of sulforaphane and related compounds present in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(11), 6672-6677. Abstract

Troncoso-Rojas, R., & Tiznado-Hernández, M. E. (2014). Alternaria alternata (black rot, black spot). In Postharvest Decay (pp. 147-187). Abstract

Yanaka, A. (2018). Daily intake of broccoli sprouts normalizes bowel habits in human healthy subjects. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 62(1), 75-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.17-42

Yanaka, A. (2017). Role of Sulforaphane in Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract Against H. pylori and NSAID-Induced Oxidative Stress. Current pharmaceutical design, 23(27), 4066-4075. Article

Yanaka, A. (2011). Sulforaphane enhances protection and repair of gastric mucosa against oxidative stress in vitro, and demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects on Helicobacter pyloriinfected gastric mucosae in mice and human subjects. Current pharmaceutical design, 17(16), 1532-1540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/138161211796196945

Yanaka, A., Fahey, J. W., Fukumoto, A., Nakayama, M., Inoue, S., Zhang, S., … & Yamamoto, M. (2009). Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori–infected mice and humans. Cancer Prevention Research, 2(4), 353-360. Abstract

Brain Health: Alzheimer’s and Autism Support

Kim, H. V., Kim, H. Y., Ehrlich, H. Y., Choi, S. Y., Kim, D. J., & Kim, Y. (2013). Amelioration of Alzheimer’s disease by neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in animal model. Amyloid, 20(1), 7-12.

Sedlak, T. W., Nucifora, L. G., Koga, M., Shaffer, L. S., Higgs, C., Tanaka, T., … & Sawa, A. (2017). Sulforaphane Augments Glutathione and Influences Brain Metabolites in Human Subjects: A Clinical Pilot Study. Molecular neuropsychiatry, 3(4), 214-222. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/487639

Singh, K., Connors, S. L., Macklin, E. A., Smith, K. D., Fahey, J. W., Talalay, P., & Zimmerman, A. W. (2014). Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), 15550-15555. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1416940111


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